Nautical Charts. Types of Scales

aprilie 11, 2017 SorinMStamate No comments exist
Nautical Charts. Types of Scales
Nautical Charts. Types of Scales

Nautical Charts. Types of Scales.

The Nautical Charts showing the Earth’s surface or a portion thereof on a plan, in a certain proportion (scale) and with deformations subject to mathematical laws.

Such a chart must meet the following conditions:

1. The quick and easy insertion of the geographical coordinates of a point;

2. The angles on the chart to be equal to those on the surface of the Earth;

3. The rhumb line and the great circle can be drawn by a straight line.

On a chart are shown a lot of elements using abbreviations, symbols, explanatory notes, warnings, namely:

a. The coast line;

b. The seabed topography;

c. The nature of the seabed;

d. Dangers for navigation;

e. Navigation aids;

f.  Natural and artificial navigation landmarks;

g. The magnetic declination and magnetic anomalies;

h. The elements of the tide and currents;

i.  Places for anchorage;

j.  The boundaries of the different regions;

k. Fairway.

The nautical charts are divided according to the scale in four categories:

1. General charts:

– Drawn at a scale between 1: 500,000 – 1: 5,000,000

– Are represented large oceanic basins and are used for:

·         Study of the navigation conditions;

·         Preparing the sea passage;

2. Route charts:

– Drawn at a scale between 1: 100,000 – 1: 500,000

– Used for navigation at deep sea or near the coasts;

– On which are represented the most important elements for navigation;

3. Coast charts:

– Drawn at a scale between 1: 50,000 – 1: 75,000;

– Used for navigation close to land, among islands, fjords, straits;

4. Plans:

– Drawn at a scale between 1: 5,000 – 1: 25,000;

– Used for operating in ports, roads, gulfs and bays.

For navigation purposes are used the following cartographic projections:

1. Mercator’s projection:

– With Rectangular Canvas;

– And the rhumb line appears as a straight line;

2. Gnomonic projection:

– Used for the navigation on the great circle;

3. stereographic projection:

– Used for navigation in the polar regions.

 

Nautical Charts. Types of Scales _ v1.0

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